The influence of powder/liquid mixing ration on the performance of a range of glass-ionomer cements

Garry Fleming, AA Farooq, Jake Barralet

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81 Citations (Scopus)


The influence of powder/liquid mixing regime on the performance of a hand-mixed restorative glass-ionomer cement (GIC) was evaluated in terms of compressive strength, working characteristics and the porosity distribution. Mean compressive fracture strengths, standard deviations and associated Weibull moduli (m) were determined from series of 20 cylindrical specimens (6 turn height, 4 mm diameter) prepared by hand-mixing the relative proportions of the powder and liquid constituents. Working characteristics were assessed using an oscillating rheometer whilst scanning electron microscopy and image analysis were used to investigate the influence of the mixing regime on pore distribution. For a constant volume of liquid (1 ml) the mean compressive strength decreased from 102.1 +/- 23.1 MPa for 7.4 g of powder, to 93.8 +/- 22.9. 82.6 +/- 18.5 and 55.7 +/- 17.2 MPa for 6.66, 5.94 and 3.7 g of powder, respectively. A concomitant increase in both the working and setting times was also observed. GICs manipulated to a powder/liquid mixing consistency below the manufacturers' recommend ratio, for a constant volume of liquid. resulted in reduced porosity levels in the cement mass and extended working and setting times. Unfortunately, a reduction in the concentration of reinforcing glass particles in the set material below that specified by the manufacturers decreases the cements' load hearing capacity so that they fail at lower compressive stress levels in the posterior region of the mouth. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4173-4179
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2003


  • glass-ionomer dental cement
  • Weibull statistics
  • compressive strength
  • mixing ratio


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