Cardiometabolic risk factors are the combined vascular and metabolic components of risk that may lead to a cardiovascular event. There are numerous such factors. Underlying the concept of cardiometabolic risk is an association with excess visceral fat, leading to the dysregulation of the adipokines, the signalling proteins derived from adipose tissue. Changes in the levels of the adipokines - tumour necrosis factor-alpha, cholesteryl ester transfer protein and adiponectin, for example - can lead to alterations in insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism. At present, specific cardiometabolic risk factors are commonly managed on an individual basis. We are now moving from the era of single risk factor intervention, however, to multiple risk factor intervention in people at high cardiovascular risk, with the additional possibility of using new drug classes to target the underlying cardiometabolic problems more effectively.