The aim of the present systematic review is to present an overview of the evidence linking atrial fibrillation (AF), inflammation and oxidative stress, with emphasis on the potential of statins to decrease the incidence of different types of AF, including new-onset AF, after electrical cardioversion (EC) and after cardiac surgery. Observational and clinical trials have studied the impact of statin therapy on new-onset, post-EC or postoperative AF. Data from different observational trials have shown that treatment with statins significantly reduces the incidence of new-onset AF in the primary and secondary prevention. The data are insufficient to recommend the use of statins before EC. Finally, perioperative statin therapy may represent an important non-antiarrhythmic adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of postoperative AF.