The immunological response among COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

Abdulaziz S. Almutairi*, Hassan Abunurah*, Abdulkarim Hadi Alanazi, Faraj Alenezi, Hassan Nagy, Nafea Saad Almutairi, Michael Wells, Abdullah Alawam, Mohammed M. Alqahtani*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often results in pneumonia and can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS is one of the most significant causes of death in patients with COVID-19. The development of a “cytokine storm” in patients with COVID-19 causes progression to ARDS. In this scoping review, we investigated the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inducing moderate and severe ARDS outcomes. A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar to implement a broad query that captured all the relevant studies published between December 2019 and September 2020.We identified seven studies that evaluated the immune response in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The white blood cell counts (WBCs), CRP, and IL-6 were higher in the moderately presenting ARDS patients, critically ill patients, and those with more severe ARDS. This study may contribute to better patient management and outcomes if tailored immune marker interventions are implemented in the near future.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)954-959
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Infection and Public Health
Issue number7
Early online date26 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • Immunological response
  • ARDS
  • COVID-19
  • cytokines


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