Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic form of left ventricular hypertrophy, primarily caused by mutations in sarcomere proteins. The cardiac remodeling that occurs as the disease develops can mask the pathogenic impact of the mutation. Here, to discriminate between mutation-induced and disease-related changes in myofilament function, we investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying HCM in a patient carrying a homozygous mutation (K280N) in the cardiac troponin T gene (TNNT2), which results in 100% mutant cardiac troponin T. We examine sarcomere mechanics and energetics in K280N-isolated myofibrils and demembranated muscle strips, before and after replacement of the endogenous troponin. We also compare these data to those of control preparations from donor hearts, aortic stenosis patients (LVH ao ), and HCM patients negative for sarcomeric protein mutations (HCM smn ). The rate constant of tension generation following maximal Ca 2+ activation (k ACT ) and the rate constant of isometric relaxation (slow k REL ) are markedly faster in K280N myofibrils than in all control groups. Simultaneous measurements of maximal isometric ATPase activity and Ca 2+ -activated tension in demembranated muscle strips also demonstrate that the energy cost of tension generation is higher in the K280N than in all controls. Replacement of mutant protein by exchange with wild-type troponin in the K280N preparations reduces k ACT , slow k REL , and tension cost close to control values. In donor myofibrils and HCM smn demembranated strips, replacement of endogenous troponin with troponin containing the K280N mutant increases k ACT , slow k REL , and tension cost. The K280N TNNT2 mutation directly alters the apparent cross-bridge kinetics and impairs sarcomere energetics. This result supports the hypothesis that inefficient ATP utilization by myofilaments plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2018 Piroddi et al.
ASJC Scopus subject areas