The GOGREEN survey: dependence of galaxy properties on halo mass at z > 1 and implications for environmental quenching

Andrew M. M. Reeves, Michael L. Balogh, Remco F. J. van der Burg, Alexis Finoguenov, Egidijus Kukstas, Ian G. McCarthy, Kristi Webb, Adam Muzzin, Sean McGee, Gregory Rudnick, Andrea Biviano, Pierluigi Cerulo, Jeffrey C. C. Chan, M. C. Cooper, Ricardo Demarco, Pascale Jablonka, Gabriella De Lucia, Benedetta Vulcani, Gillian Wilson, Howard K. C. YeeDennis Zaritsky

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We use photometric redshifts and statistical background subtraction to measure stellar mass functions in galaxy group-mass (4.5−8 × 1013 M) haloes at 1 < z < 1.5. Groups are selected from COSMOS and SXDF, based on X-ray imaging and sparse spectroscopy. Stellar mass (Mstellar) functions are computed for quiescent and star-forming galaxies separately, based on their rest-frame UVJ colours. From these we compute the quiescent fraction and quiescent fraction excess (QFE) relative to the field as a function of Mstellar. QFE increases with Mstellar, similar to more massive clusters at 1 < z < 1.5. This contrasts with the apparent separability of Mstellar and environmental factors on galaxy quiescent fractions at z ∼ 0. We then compare our results with higher mass clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 and lower redshifts. We find a strong QFE dependence on halo mass at fixed Mstellar; well fit by a logarithmic slope of d(QFE)/dlog (Mhalo) ∼ 0.24 ± 0.04 for all Mstellar and redshift bins. This dependence is in remarkably good qualitative agreement with the hydrodynamic simulation BAHAMAS, but contradicts the observed dependence of QFE on Mstellar. We interpret the results using two toy models: one where a time delay until rapid (instantaneous) quenching begins upon accretion to the main progenitor (‘no pre-processing’) and one where it starts upon first becoming a satellite (‘pre-processing’). Delay times appear to be halo mass-dependent, with a significantly stronger dependence required without pre-processing. We conclude that our results support models in which environmental quenching begins in low-mass (<1014M) haloes at z > 1.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3364–3384
Number of pages21
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number3
Early online date10 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • astro-ph.GA
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • galaxies: evolution
  • galaxies: groups: general
  • galaxies: haloes
  • galaxies: highredshift
  • galaxies: star formation.


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