Plastic surgery encompasses a broad spectrum of reconstructive challenges and prides itself upon developing and adopting new innovations. Practice has transitioned from microsurgery to supermicrosurgery with a possible future role in even smaller surgical frontiers. Exploiting materials on a nanoscale has enabled better visualization and enhancement of biological processes toward better wound healing, tumor identification and viability of tissues, all cornerstones of plastic surgery practice. Recent advances in nanomedicine and biomimicry herald further reconstructive progress facilitating soft and hard tissue, nerve and vascular engineering. These lay the foundation for improved biocompatibility and tissue integration by the optimization of engineered implants or tissues. This review will broadly examine each of these technologies, highlighting areas of progress that reconstructive surgeons may not be familiar with, which could see adoption into our armamentarium in the not-so-distant future.