The formation of a bubble from a submerged orifice

Jonathan A. Simmons, James E. Sprittles, Yulii D. Shikhmurzaev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)
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The formation of a single bubble from an orifice in a solid surface, submerged in an incompressible, viscous Newtonian liquid, is simulated. The finite element method is used to capture the multiscale physics associated with the problem and to track the evolution of the free surface explicitly. The results are compared to a recent experimental analysis and then used to obtain the global characteristics of the process, the formation time and volume of the bubble, for a range of orifice radii; Ohnesorge numbers, which combine the material parameters of the liquid; and volumetric gas flow rates. These benchmark calculations, for the parameter space of interest, are then utilised to validate a selection of scaling laws found in the literature for two regimes of bubble formation, the regimes of low and high gas flow rates.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Mechanics B - Fluids
Publication statusPublished - 23 Mar 2015


  • Bubble formation
  • Pinch-off
  • Singular flows
  • Finite element method


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