The Eocene−Oligocene transition in Nanggulan, Java: lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and foraminiferal stable isotopes

Helen K. Coxall, Tom Dunkley Jones, Amy P. Jones, Peter Lunt, Ian MacMillan, Gayatri I. Marliyani, Christopher J. Nicholas, Aoife O'Halloran, Emanuela Piga, Prihardjo Sanyoto, Wartono Rahardjo, Paul N. Pearson

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Abstract

The Nanggulan section in south central Java comprises open marine sediments and volcanic deposits of Eocene–Oligocene age that accumulated in a marginal basin within the young Sunda Arc complex. A new borehole captures the stratigraphy and showcases the exceptional preservation of calcareous microfossils across an apparently complete Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT), a time interval significant for the initiation of continental-scale glaciation on Antarctica. Low-resolution benthic and planktonic foraminifera oxygen and carbon stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) record increasing δ18O and δ13C in the basal Oligocene, allowing correlation to global records. Isotopic values imply warm temperatures and relatively high nutrients along the SE Java margin. The Nanggulan EOT is a valuable archive for reconstructing ocean–climate behaviour and plankton evolution and extinction in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. The borehole also adds to understanding of the early stages of Sunda Arc volcanism.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberjgs2021-006
JournalJournal of the Geological Society
Volume178
Issue number6
Early online date24 May 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 May 2021

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