Hydroxylation is a novel protein modification catalyzed by a family of oxygenases that depend on fundamental nutrients and metabolites for activity. Protein hydroxylases have been implicated in a variety of key cellular processes that play important roles in both normal homeostasis and pathogenesis. Here, in this review, we summarize the current literature on a highly conserved sub-family of oxygenases that catalyze protein histidyl hydroxylation. We discuss the evidence supporting the biochemical assignment of these emerging enzymes as ribosomal protein hydroxylases, and provide an overview of their role in immunology, bone development, and cancer.
- Histone Demethylases/metabolism
- Mixed Function Oxygenases/chemistry
- Muscle, Skeletal/growth & development
- Nuclear Proteins/metabolism
- Protein Processing, Post-Translational
- Ribosomal Proteins/chemistry