The effects of opioids on the endocrine system: an overview

Koddus Ali, Jon Raphael, Salim Khan, Mourad H. Labib, Rui Duarte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
428 Downloads (Pure)


Opioids commonly used for pain relief may lead to hypogonadism, which is characterised by suppression of production of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) resulting in inadequate production of sex hormones. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the effects of opioids on the endocrine system and the development of hypogonadism. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant articles investigating hypogonadism in patients undertaking opioid therapy by using a combination of both indexing and free-text terms. The suppression of GnRH leading to a decrease in sex hormones has been described as the principal mechanism of opioid-induced hypogonadism. However, there is no consensus on the threshold for the clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism. Evidence indicates that chronic opioid use can lead to hypogonadism. Clinicians should be aware of symptomatology associated with hypogonadism and should regularly monitor patients with appropriate
laboratory investigations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages5
JournalPostgraduate Medical Journal
Issue number1093
Early online date19 Sept 2016
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2016


  • opioids
  • hypogonadism
  • chronic pain
  • testosterone
  • testosterone replacement therapy


Dive into the research topics of 'The effects of opioids on the endocrine system: an overview'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this