The effects of Clostridium difficile crude toxins and toxin A on ileal and colonic loops in immune and non-immune rabbits

J M Ketley, T J Mitchell, D C Candy, D W Burdon, J Stephen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Rabbits were solidly immunised by parenteral injection of purified Clostridium difficile toxin A such that they resisted an intravenous challenge with a normally lethal dose of toxin A. Ileal and colonic loops constructed in non-immune and immune animals received challenge injections of crude culture filtrate or purified toxin A of C. difficile. Protection of ileum was manifest after sufficient initial mucosal damage resulted in release of high levels of antitoxin A into the loop lumen of immune animals. There was less fluid accumulation in ligated ileal loops of immune than of non-immune rabbits. Less protection was observed when loops were challenged with crude culture filtrate containing toxins A and B than when challenged with purified toxin A. In-vitro studies with Ussing chambers yielded no evidence for tissue-localised immunity as judged by electrical responses and histology of toxin-treated tissue from non-immune and immune animals. No differences were found in the degree of epithelial damage, or volume or composition of fluid accumulating in colonic loops of non-immune and immune rabbits challenged with toxin A or crude culture filtrate. However, in colonic loops of immune rabbits there was no overt tissue-localised haemorrhage, whereas in those of non-immune rabbits tissue-localised haemorrhage was marked. In contrast to our findings with ileal loops, fluid accumulating in colonic loops was watery and contained substantially less total protein and (in immune animals) antitoxin A.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-52
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Medical Microbiology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1987


  • Animals
  • Antitoxins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Body Fluids
  • Clostridium
  • Colon
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous
  • Enterotoxins
  • Ileum
  • Immunity, Active
  • Immunization
  • Intestinal Mucosa
  • Male
  • Proteins
  • Rabbits


Dive into the research topics of 'The effects of Clostridium difficile crude toxins and toxin A on ileal and colonic loops in immune and non-immune rabbits'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this