The effects of air and particle density difference on segregation of powder mixtures during die filling

Yu Guo, Chuan-yu Wu, Colin Thornton

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35 Citations (Scopus)


Segregation of mono-disperse binary mixtures with different particle densities during die filling in the presence of air was numerically analysed using a coupled discrete element method (DEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Die filling with powders of different particle density ratios (i.e. the ratio of the heavy particles to the light particles) at various shoe speeds was simulated, in order to explore the effects of air and particle density difference on segregation. For die filling from a stationary shoe, the air can induce significant segregation by hindering the deposition of light particles (i.e., air-sensitive particles). As the particle density ratio increases, the light particles are deposited in to the die at even lower speeds compared with the heavy ones due to the effect of air drag, resulting in an increase in the degree of segregation. For die filling with a moving shoe, segregation occurs due to different post-collisional velocities resulting from different particle inertia; and the degree of segregation increases as the particle density ratio increases due to the increasing difference in particle inertia. It is found that, as the shoe velocity increases, the powder flow pattern changes from nose flow dominated to bulk flow dominated and the degree of segregation generally decreases. The effect of air is limited for nose flow dominated die filling because the air can easily evacuate through the gap between the die walls and flowing powder stream. When bulk flow dominates in die filling, the air can be entrapped in the die, which has a significant impact on the powder flow and segregation behaviours. Finally, the effect of interparticle friction on segregation was investigated. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)661-673
Number of pages13
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2011


  • Numerical analysis
  • Powders
  • Segregation
  • Packed bed
  • Multiphase flow
  • Die filling


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