The effect of numerical divergence schemes on the flow around trains

Tian Li*, Hassan Hemida, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi, Weihua Zhang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The influence of divergence schemes in typical turbulence modelling on the aerodynamic behaviours was investigated in this study. Four common divergence schemes have been used to predict the aerodynamic behaviours of a typical train in crosswinds, including the first order upwind differencing (UD), second order limited-linear differencing (LL), linear-upwind differencing (LU) and Linear-upwind stabilized transport (LUST) schemes. Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model and Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (IDDES) were applied to simulate the aerodynamic characteristics of the train. Both SST and IDDES with the above three kinds of the second order divergence schemes are capable of predict accurately the pressure coefficient. Results obtained using SST with the second order discretisation schemes gave similar streamline trends around the train nose and as anticipated, results from the first order UD scheme showed poor comparison. Results obtained using IDDES showed sensitivity to the divergence schemes, and different schemes performing differently in predicting the surface pressure on different parts of the car body. Considerable differences in the force coefficient using IDDES were observed between the LUST and the other schemes. The second order upwind LU scheme is not recommended for IDDES of the flow around trains.

Original languageEnglish
Article number025509
JournalFluid Dynamics Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Japan Society of Fluid Mechanics and IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • crosswind
  • Divergence scheme
  • SST k-w
  • train aerodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of numerical divergence schemes on the flow around trains'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this