The effect of formulation variables on fouling-release performance of stratified siloxane-polyurethane coatings

RB Bodkhe, Stephanie Thompson, C Yehle, N Cilz, J Daniels, SJ Stafslien, Maureen Callow, James Callow, DC Webster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of formulation variables, such as type of polyol, solvent type and solvent content, and coating application method, on the surface properties of siloxane-polyurethane fouling-release coatings were explored. Fouling-release coatings allow the easy removal of marine organisms from a ship's hull via the application of a shear force to the surface. Self-stratified siloxane-polyurethane coatings are a new approach to a tough fouling-release coating system. Combinatorial High Throughput Experimentation was employed to formulate and characterize 24 different siloxane-polyurethane coatings applied using drawdown and drop-casting methods. The resulting coatings were tested for surface energy using contact angle measurements. The fouling-release performance of the coatings was tested using a number of diverse marine organisms including bacteria (Halomonas pacifica and Cytophaga lytica), sporelings (young plants) of the green macroalga (Ulva linza), diatom ((microalga) Navicula incerta), and barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite). The performance of the majority of the coatings was found to be better than the silicone standards, Intersleek(A (R)) and Silastic(A (R)) T2. An increase in solvent content in the formulations increased the surface roughness of the coatings. Coatings made with polycaprolactone polyol appeared to be somewhat rougher compared to coatings made with the acrylic polyol. The adhesion strength of sporelings of Ulva increased with an increase in solvent content and increase in surface roughness. The adhesion strengths of Ulva sporelings, C. lytica, and N. incerta were independent of application method (cast or drawdown) in contrast to H. pacifica adhesion, which was dependent on the application method.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-249
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Coatings Technology and Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012


  • Fouling
  • Siloxane
  • Marine coatings
  • Polyurethane
  • Ulva


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