The contribution of autophagy and LncRNAs to MYC-driven gene regulatory networks in cancers

Leila Jahangiri, Perla Pucci, Tala Ishola, Ricky M Trigg, John A Williams, Joao Pereira, Megan L Cavanagh, Suzanne D Turner, Georgios V Gkoutos, Loukia Tsaprouni

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MYC is a target of the Wnt signalling pathway and governs numerous cellular and developmental programmes hijacked in cancers. The amplification of MYC is a frequently occurring genetic alteration in cancer genomes, and this transcription factor is implicated in metabolic reprogramming, cell death, and angiogenesis in cancers. In this review, we analyse MYC gene networks in solid cancers. We investigate the interaction of MYC with long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Furthermore, we investigate the role of MYC regulatory networks in inducing changes to cellular processes, including autophagy and mitophagy. Finally, we review the interaction and mutual regulation between MYC and lncRNAs, and autophagic processes and analyse these networks as unexplored areas of targeting and manipulation for therapeutic gain in MYC-driven malignancies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8527
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 8 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: G.V.G. acknowledges support from the NIHR Birmingham ECMC; NIHR Birmingham SRMRC; Nanocommons Horizon 2020-EU (731032); the NIHR Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre; and the MRC HDR UK (HDRUK/CFC/01), an initiative funded by UK Research and Innovation, Department of Health and Social Care (England), and the devolved administrations and leading medical research charities. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research, the Medical Research Council, or the Department of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • MYC
  • gene regulatory networks (GRNs)
  • autophagy
  • lncRNAs


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