The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q): development and initial validation

S Jowett, Nikolaos Ntoumanis

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The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that measures the nature of the coach-athlete relationship. Jowett et al.'s (Jowett & Meek, 2000; Jowett, in press) qualitative case studies and relevant literature were used to generate items for an instrument that measures affective, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of the coach-athlete relationship. Two studies were carried out in an attempt to assess content, predictive, and construct validity, as well as internal consistency, of the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), using two independent British samples. Principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to reduce the number of items, identify principal components, and confirm the latent structure of the CART-Q. Results supported the multidimensional nature of the coach-athlete relationship. The latent structure of the CART-Q was underlined by the latent variables of coaches' and athletes' Closeness (emotions), Commitment (cognitions), and Complementarity (behaviors).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-257
Number of pages13
JournalScandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2004


  • scale development
  • Coach-Athlete Relationship
  • validation


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