## Abstract

For the first time, a set of Lattice-Boltzmann two-way coupling pointwise Euler-Lagrange models is applied to gas mixing of sludge for anaerobic digestion. The set comprises a local model, a “first-neighbour” (viz., back-coupling occurs to the voxel where a particle sits, plus its first neighbours) and a “smoothing-kernel” (forward- and back-coupling occur through a smoothed-kernel averaging procedure). Laboratory-scale tests display grid-independence problems due to bubble diameter being larger than voxel size, thereby breaking the pointwise Euler-Lagrange assumption of negligible particle size. To tackle this problem and thereby have grid-independent results, a novel data-scaling approach to pointwise Euler-Lagrange grid independence evaluation, based on an application of the Buckingham π theorem, is proposed. Evaluation of laboratory-scale flow patterns and comparison to experimental data show only marginal differences in between the models, and between numerical modelling and experimental data. Pilot-scale simulations show that all the models produce grid-independent, coherent data if the Euler-Lagrange assumption of negligible (or at least, small) particle size is recovered. In both cases, a second-order convergence was achieved. A discussion follows on the opportunity of applying the proposed data-scaling approach rather than the smoothing-kernel model.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 104632 |

Journal | Computers and Fluids |

Volume | 209 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 15 Sep 2020 |

## Keywords

- Anaerobic digestion
- Euler-Lagrange
- Grid independence
- Lattice-Boltzmann
- Non-Newtonian
- OpenLB

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Computer Science(all)
- Engineering(all)