The 4 D's of pellagra and progress

Adrian C Williams, Lisa J Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
152 Downloads (Pure)


Nicotinamide homeostasis is a candidate common denominator to explain smooth transitions, whether demographic, epidemiological or economic. This ‘NAD world’, dependent on hydrogen-based energy, is not widely recognised as it is neither measured nor viewed from a sufficiently multi-genomic or historical perspective. Reviewing the importance of meat and nicotinamide balances during our co-evolution, recent history suggests that populations only modernise and age well with low fertility on a suitably balanced diet. Imbalances on the low meat side lead to an excess of infectious disease, short lives and boom-bust demographics. On the high side, meat has led to an excess of degenerative, allergic and metabolic disease and low fertility. A ‘Goldilocks’ diet derived from mixed and sustainable farming (preserving the topsoil) allows for high intellectual capital, height and good health with controlled population growth resulting in economic growth and prosperity. Implementing meat equity worldwide could lead to progress for future generations on ‘spaceship’ earth by establishing control over population quality, thermostat and biodiversity, if it is not already too late.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-12
JournalInternational Journal of Tryptophan Research
Early online date16 Apr 2020
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship and/or publication of this article: This study was funded by QEHB Charity, Birmingham, UK.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2020.


  • CO emissions
  • COVID-19
  • Climate change
  • NAD worlds
  • Parkinson disease
  • anthropocene
  • coronavirus
  • deaths of despair
  • demographic transition
  • disease X
  • disease transitions
  • meat
  • metabolic rift
  • new levellers
  • nicotinamide
  • protonopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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