TAC3/TACR3 Mutations Reveal Preferential Activation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Release by Neurokinin B in Neonatal Life Followed by Reversal in Adulthood

E Gianetti, C Tusset, SD Noel, MG Au, AA Dwyer, VA Hughes, AP Abreu, J Carroll, E Trarbach, LFG Silveira, EMF Costa, BB de Mendonca, M de Castro, A Lofrano, JE Hall, E Bolu, M Ozata, R Quinton, JK Amory, SE StewartWiebke Arlt, Trevor Cole, WF Crowley, UB Kaiser, AC Latronico, SB Seminara

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195 Citations (Scopus)


Context: Mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (encoding neurokinin B and its receptor) have been identified in Turkish patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), but broader populations have not yet been tested and genotype-phenotype correlations have not been established. Objective: A broad cohort of normosmic IHH probands was screened for mutations in TAC3/TACR3 to evaluate the prevalence of such mutations and define the genotype/phenotype relationships. Design and Setting: The study consisted of sequencing of TAC3/TACR3, in vitro functional assays, and neuroendocrine phenotyping conducted in tertiary care centers worldwide. Patients or Other Participants: 345 probands, 18 family members, and 292 controls were studied. Intervention: Reproductive phenotypes throughout reproductive life and before and after therapy were examined. Main Outcome Measure: Rare sequence variants in TAC3/TACR3 were detected. Results: In TACR3, 19 probands harbored 13 distinct coding sequence rare nucleotide variants [three nonsense mutations, six nonsynonymous, four synonymous (one predicted to affect splicing)]. In TAC3, one homozygous single base pair deletion was identified, resulting in complete loss of the neurokinin B decapeptide. Phenotypic information was available on 16 males and seven females with coding sequence variants in TACR3/TAC3. Of the 16 males, 15 had microphallus; none of the females had spontaneous thelarche. Seven of the 16 males and five of the seven females were assessed after discontinuation of therapy; six of the seven males and four of the five females demonstrated evidence for reversibility of their hypogonadotropism. Conclusions: Mutations in the neurokinin B pathway are relatively common as causes of hypogonadism. Although the neurokinin B pathway appears essential during early sexual development, its importance in sustaining the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis appears attenuated over time. (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95: 2857-2867, 2010)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2857-2867
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2010


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