Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is arguably one of the most successful pathogens of humans, persistently infecting over ninety percent of the world's population. Despite this high frequency of carriage, the virus causes apparently few adverse effects in the vast majority of infected individuals. Nevertheless, the potent growth transforming ability of EBV means the virus has the potential to cause malignancies in infected individuals. Indeed, EBV is thought to cause 1% of human malignancies, equating to 200,000 malignancies each year. A clear factor as to why virus-induced disease is relatively infrequent in healthy infected individuals is the presence of a potent immune response to EBV, in particular, that mediated by T cells. Thus, patient groups with immunodeficiencies or whose cellular immune response is suppressed have much higher frequencies of EBV-induced disease and, in at least some cases, these diseases can be controlled by restoration of the T-cell compartment. In this chapter, we will primarily review the role the αβ subset of T cells in the control of EBV in healthy and diseased individuals.