Synthetic strategies, sustainability and biological applications of malic acid–based polymers

S.L. King, V.X. Truong, C. Kirchhoefer, A. Pitto-Barry, A.P. Dove

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


This review summarises the recent developments in the synthesis and applications of polymers derived from malic acid. There has been an increased interest in the design of sustainable and biodegradable polymers as a result of the drive to use renewable feedstocks as an alternative to petrochemicals in addition to their significant potential in biomedical applications. Synthetic strategies to access polymers from malic acid based on both condensation and ring-opening polymerization, across a broad range of conditions, are reviewed along with their advantages and limits. The role that such materials are studied for in biomedical applications is discussed, and their environmental impact based on the biodegradability of the malic polymer backbone is outlined.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-122
Number of pages16
JournalGreen Materials
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2014


  • biodegradable polymers ; biomacromolecules ; catalysis ; degradation ; lactones ; nanoparticles ; polymeric materials ; polymers ; polymerization ; renewable resources
  • biomacromolecules
  • renewable resources
  • degradation
  • catalysis
  • lactones
  • nanoparticles


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