Iron dysregulation, dopamine depletion, cellular oxidative stress and α-synuclein protein mis-folding are key neuronal pathological features seen in the progression of Parkinson's disease. Iron chelators endowed with one or more therapeutic modes of action have long been suggested as disease modifying therapies for its treatment. In this study, novel 1-hydroxypyrazin-2(1H)-one iron chelators were synthesized and their physicochemical properties, iron chelation abilities, antioxidant capacities and neuroprotective effects in a cell culture model of Parkinson's disease were evaluated. Physicochemical properties (log β, log D7.4, pL0.5) suggest that these ligands have a poorer ability to penetrate cell membranes and form weaker iron complexes than the closely related 1-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-ones. Despite this, we show that levels of neuroprotection provided by these ligands against the catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine in vitro were comparable to those seen previously with the 1-hydroxypyridin-2(1H)-ones and the clinically used iron chelator Deferiprone, with two of the ligands restoring cell viability to ≥89% compared to controls. Two of the ligands were endowed with additional phenol moieties in an attempt to derive multifunctional chelators with dual iron chelation/antioxidant activity. However, levels of neuroprotection with these ligands were no greater than ligands lacking this moiety, suggesting the neuroprotective properties of these ligands are due primarily to chelation and passivation of intracellular labile iron, preventing the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species that otherwise lead to the neuronal cell death seen in Parkinson's disease.
- Iron chelators
- Parkinson's disease
- Reactive Oxygen Species
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)