Synthesis and spark plasma sintering of sub-micron HfB2: effect of various carbon sources

S. Venugopal*, A. Paul, B. Vaidhyanathan, Jonathan Binner, A. Heaton, P. M. Brown

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
318 Downloads (Pure)


The present work describes a simple process to synthesise HfB2 powder with sub-micron sized particles. Hafnium chloride and boric acid were used as the elemental sources whilst several carbon sources including sucrose, graphite, carbon black, carbon nanotubes and liquid and powder phenolic resin were used. The carbon sources were characterised using thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscope. The mechanism by which the structure of the carbon source used, affects the size and morphology of the resultant HfB2 powder was studied; the HfB2 powders were characterised using X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The powder synthesised using powder phenolic resin had a surface area of 21m2g-1 and a particle size distribution between 30 and 150nm. This was sintered using SPS to a relative density of 94% of theoretical density (TD) at 2100°C and 50MPa pressure without the help of any sintering aids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1471-1479
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number6
Early online date9 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014


  • Carbon sources
  • HfB
  • Nano particles
  • Sintering
  • SPS
  • Ultra-high temperature ceramics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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