Surface characteristics and bacterial adhesion of endodontic cements

Andreas Koutroulis, Håkon Valen Rukke, Dag Ørstavik, Vasileios Kapralos, Josette Camilleri, Pia Titterud Sunde

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To investigate the effect of inclusion of silver nano-particles (SNP) or bioactive glass (BG) on the surface characteristics and bacterial adhesion of prototype tricalcium silicate (TCS)–based cements alongside two commercial cements, under different aging periods and exposure conditions.

Materials and methods
A basic formulation of radio-opacified TCS without (TZ-base) and with additions of SNP (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/ml) or BG (10 or 20%) was used. Biodentine and intermediate restorative material (IRM) served as reference materials. Material disks were immersed in ultrapure water or fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 1, 7, or 28 days. Surface roughness (n = 3), microhardness (n = 9), and wettability (n = 6) were analyzed by standard procedures. Adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy (n = 5). Data from these assays were evaluated for normality and comparisons among groups were conducted with statistical procedures (p 
The surface morphology of SNP- and BG-containing cements had higher roughness values than TZ-base after 28 days (p  0.05). Biodentine presented smooth surface characteristics and the highest hardness values (p 
Incorporation of SNP or BG did not improve the antibacterial effect of the experimental cement; all 28-day aged materials failed to inhibit bacterial adherence. The measured physical parameters did not appear to be related to the degree of bacterial adhesion. Exposure of TCS-based cements in FBS resulted in surface reactions, which did not affect bacterial adhesion.

Clinical relevance
Changes in the surface characteristics of prototype TCS-based cements by inclusion of SNP and BG or exposure to different environments did not affect bacterial adhesion. All experimental materials showed inferior physical properties and higher antibacterial effect than Biodentine.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages15
JournalClinical Oral Investigations
Early online date5 Aug 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Aug 2022


  • Antibacterial compounds
  • Calcium silicate
  • Characterization
  • Root repair
  • Root-end filling


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