Recent studies have indicated that chimpanzee bipedality is mechanically inefficient and dynamically unlike that of humans, thus undermining the chimpanzee analogy for mechanical aspects of the early evolution of hominid bipedalism. This paper continues this theme by measuring the forces and stresses engendered by the muscles during bipedal locomotion, for an untrained chimpanzee and for data from chimpanzees which have been encouraged to walk bipedally, presented in the literature. Peak stresses in the triceps surae were lower for the untrained chimpanzee than for the trained subjects because during the late stance phase, when peak ankle moments occur, the centre of pressure of the ground reaction force on the foot of the untrained chimpanzee stayed close to the ankle joint. In contrast, for the trained subjects it moved closer to the toes, as in human bipedalism. Quadriceps and hip extensor stresses are approximately 30% larger for the untrained chimpanzee than for the trained subjects, because the trained chimpanzees walked with a more erect posture. These results may reflect the way in which muscles can develop in response to training, since research on humans has shown that muscle physiological cross-sectional area increases as a result of exercise, resulting in smaller stresses for a given muscle force. During a slow walk, untrained chimpanzees were found to exert far greater muscle stresses than humans do when running at moderate speed, particularly in the muscles that extend the hip, because of the bent-hip, bent-knee posture. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.