OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between social deprivation and incident diabetes-related foot disease (DFD) in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based open retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (1 January 2005 to 31 December 2019) was conducted. Patients with type 2 diabetes free of DFD at baseline were stratified by Townsend deprivation index, and risk of developing DFD was calculated. DFD was defined as a composite of foot ulcer (FU), Charcot arthropathy, lower-limb amputation (LLA), peripheral neuropathy (PN), peripheral vascular disease (PVD), and gangrene.
RESULTS: A total of 176,359 patients were eligible (56% men; mean age 62.9 [SD 13.1] years). After excluding 26,094 patients with DFD before/within 15 months of type 2 diabetes diagnosis, DFD incidentally developed in 12.1% of the study population over 3.27 years (interquartile range 1.41-5.96). Patients in the most deprived Townsend quintile had increased risk of DFD compared with those in the least deprived (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.22; 95% CI 1.16-1.29) after adjusting for sex, age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis, ethnicity, smoking, BMI, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, retinopathy, estimated glomerular filtration rate, insulin, glucose/lipid-lowering medication, and baseline foot risk. Patients in the most deprived Townsend quintile had higher risk of PN (aHR 1.18; 95% CI 1.11-1.25), FU (aHR 1.44; 95% CI 1.17-1.77), PVD (aHR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28-1.53), LLA (aHR 1.75; 95% CI 1.08-2.83), and gangrene (aHR 8.49; 95% CI 1.01-71.58) compared with those in the least.
CONCLUSIONS: Social deprivation is an independent risk factor for the development of DFD, PN, FU, PVD, LLA, and gangrene in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. Considering the high individual and economic burdens of DFD, strategies targeting patients in socially deprived areas are needed to reduce health inequalities.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialised Nursing