Simultaneous measurements of urban and rural particles in Beijing - Part 1: Chemical composition and mixing state

Yang Chen*, Jing Cai, Zhichao Wang, Chao Peng, Xiaojiang Yao, Mi Tian, Yiqun Han, Guangming Shi, Zongbo Shi, Yue Liu, Xi Yang, Mei Zheng, Tong Zhu, Kebin He, Qiang Zhang, Fumo Yang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Two single-particle aerosol mass spectrometers (SPAMSs) were deployed simultaneously at an urban and a rural site in Beijing during an intensive field campaign from 1 to 29 November 2016 to investigate the source and process of airborne particles in Beijing. In the first part of this research, we report the single-particle chemical composition, mixing state, and evolution at both sites. A total of 96% and 98% of collected particles were carbonaceous at the urban and rural sites, respectively. Five particle categories, including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), internal-mixed EC and OC (ECOC), potassium-rich (K-rich), and metals, were observed at both sites. The categories were partitioned into particle types depending on different atmospheric processing stages. A total of 17 particle types were shared at both sites. In the urban area, nitrate-containing particle types, such as EC-Nit (Nit: nitrate) and ECOC-Nit, were enriched especially at night, sulfate-containing particles were transported when wind speed was high, and ECOC-Nit-Sul (Sul: sulfate) were mostly aged locally. In sum, these processed particles added up to 85.3% in the urban areas. In the rural area, regional particles were abundant, but freshly emitted ECOC and OC had distinct patterns that were pronounced at cooking and heating times. Biomass burning, traffic, and coal burning were major sources of particulate matter (PM2:5) in both rural and urban areas. Moreover, particles from the steel industry located in the south were also identified. In summary, the chemical composition of urban and rural particle types was similar in Beijing; the urban particles were influenced significantly by rural processing and transport. The work is useful to understand the evolution of urban and rural particles in Beijing during winter.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9231-9247
Number of pages17
JournalAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements. We are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 4170030287 and 81571130100). Zongbo Shi is thankful for funding from NERC (NE/N007190/1 and NE/R005281/1).

Funding Information:
Financial support. This research has been supported by the Na-

Funding Information:
tional Key Research and Development Programs of China (grant no. 2018YFC02004013) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 41375123 and 81571130100).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science


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