Sex-specific temporal trends in the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in young adults: a population-based study using UK primary care data

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Abstract

Aims: There is concern that cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young adults is rising. However, current trends in the UK are unknown. We investigated sex-specific trends in the incidence and prevalence of CVD in young UK adults.

Methods and results: A series of annual (1998–2017) cohort and cross-sectional studies were conducted to estimate incidence rates and prevalence in men and women aged 16–50. Joinpoint regression models were fitted to evaluate changes in trends. From 1998 to 2017, incidence and prevalence had an overall downward trend for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and angina, while coronary revascularization, stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and heart failure (HF) had an upward trend in both sexes. Myocardial infarction (MI) trends were stable in men and increased in women. For incidence, the average annual percentage change (AAPC) for men vs. women, respectively, was IHD −2.6% vs. −3.4%; angina −7.0% vs. −7.3%; MI 0.01% vs. 2.3%; revascularization 1.1% vs. 3.9%; stroke/TIA 1.9% vs. 0.6%; HF 5.6% vs. 5.0% (P for trend <0.05 for all except MI and revascularization in men and stroke/TIA in women). For prevalence, AAPCs for men vs. women, respectively, were IHD −2.8% vs. −4.9%; angina −7.2% vs. −7.8%; MI −0.2% vs. 2.0; revascularization 3.2% vs. 4.1%; stroke/TIA 3.1% vs. 3.6%; HF 5.0% vs. 3.0% (P for trend <0.05 for all except MI in men). In recent years, IHD and revascularization trends levelled off, while stroke/TIA and HF trends increased in both sexes.

Conclusion: Overall trends in incidence and prevalence of CVD are worsening in young adults. Factors behind unfavourable trends warrant investigation and public health intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • trends
  • sex-specific
  • ischaemic heart disease
  • stroke
  • heart failure
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Epidemiology

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