Sensors for fetal hypoxia and metabolic acidosis: a review

Gerard Cummins, Jessica Kremer, Anne Bernassau, Andrew Brown , Helen Bridle, Holger Schulze, Till Bachmann, Michael Crichton, Fiona Denison , Marc P.Y. Desmulliez

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
105 Downloads (Pure)


This article reviews existing clinical practices and sensor research undertaken to monitor fetal well-being during labour. Current clinical practices that include fetal heart rate monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling are shown to be either inadequate or time-consuming. Monitoring of lactate in blood is identified as a potential alternative for intrapartum fetal monitoring due to its ability to distinguish between different types of acidosis. A literature review from a medical and technical perspective is presented to identify the current advancements in the field of lactate sensors for this application. It is concluded that a less invasive and a more continuous monitoring device is required to fulfill the clinical needs of intrapartum fetal monitoring. Potential specifications for such a system are also presented in this paper.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2648
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 13 Aug 2018


  • lactate
  • electrochemical sensing
  • optical sensing
  • lactate oxidase
  • lactate hydrogenase
  • fetal monitoring
  • hypoxia
  • obstetrics
  • fetal blood sampling


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