Sensors and Actuators for the Advanced LIGO+ Upgrade

S J Cooper, C M Mow-Lowry*, D Hoyland, J Bryant, A Ubhi, J O'Dell, A Huddart, S Aston, A Vecchio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Downloads (Pure)


Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO A+) is a major upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory. For the A+ project, we have developed, produced, and characterized sensors and electronics to interrogate new optical suspensions designed to isolate optics from vibrations. The central element is a displacement sensor with an integrated electromagnetic actuator known as a BOSEM (Birmingham Optical Sensor and ElectroMagnetic actuator) and its readout and drive electronics required to integrate them into LIGO’s control and data system. In this paper, we report on the improvements to the sensors and the testing procedures undertaken to meet the enhanced performance requirements set out by the A+ upgrade to the detectors. The best devices reach a noise level of 4.5 ×10−11m/√Hz
at a measurement frequency of 1 Hz, an improvement of 6.7 times over standard devices.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)014502
Number of pages5
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jan 2023


  • astro-ph.IM
  • physics.ins-det


Dive into the research topics of 'Sensors and Actuators for the Advanced LIGO+ Upgrade'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this