Scoping Review protocol: Bladder cancer in Nigeria - what are the gaps in clinical care and research?

J Kibaru, P Kotecha, AM Iya, Beth Russell, M Abdullahi, SU Alhassan, MI Mustapha, Rik Bryan, Mieke Van Hemelrijck

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Introduction Bladder cancer (BC) is the 10th common cancer worldwide and ranks seventh in Nigeria. This scoping review aims to identify the gaps in clinical care and research of BC in Nigeria as part of the development of a larger national research programme aiming to improve outcomes and care of BC. Methods and analysis This review will be conducted according to Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodology framework. The following electronic databases will be searched: Medline (using the PubMed interface), Ovid Gateway (Embase and Ovid), Cochrane library and Open Grey literature. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts and subsequently screen full-Text studies for inclusion, any lack of consensus will be discussed with a third reviewer. Any study providing insight into the epidemiology or treatment pathway of BC (RCTs, observations, case series, policy paper) will be included. A data chart will be used to extract relevant data from the included studies. Results will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews. A consultation process will be carried out with a multidisciplinary team of Nigerian healthcare professionals, patients and scientists. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. By highlighting the key gaps in the literature, this review can provide direction for future research and clinical guidelines in Nigeria (and other low-income and middle-income countries), where BC is more prevalent due to local risk factors and healthcare settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere041894
Number of pages5
JournalBMJ open
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • epidemiology
  • oncology
  • urological tumours
  • Poverty
  • Peer Review
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Review Literature as Topic
  • Humans
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic
  • Nigeria
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/epidemiology
  • Research Design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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