Scoping review: bladder cancer in Nigeria - what are the gaps in clinical care and research?

AM Iya, Katharina Beyer, P Kotecha, J Kibaru, M Abdullahi, SU Alhassan, MI Mustapha, A Ahmad, Y Lawal, RI Jalo, A Aminu, A Abubakar, A Saleh, Rik Bryan, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Beth Russell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Objectives: There are currently no national guidelines regarding bladder cancer treatment and clinical care pathways in Nigeria. The aim of this scoping review was to identify any gaps in the knowledge of epidemiology, clinical care and translational research in order to aid the development of a defined clinical care pathway and guide future research.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted by searching Medline, Ovid Gateway, The Cochrane library and Open Grey literature using predefined search terms from date of inception to June 2020. Studies were included if they discussed the epidemiology or treatment pathway of bladder cancer. All data were charted and were analysed in a descriptive manner. A consultation phase was also conducted consisting of a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and bladder cancer survivors.

Results: A total of 19 studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. The themes included the epidemiology of bladder cancer (high prevalence of schistosomiasis), research surrounding the biology of the disease and translational research including potential biomarkers. The consultation phase highlighted some possible sociocultural and infrastructural issues relating to both the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, with poor knowledge of bladder cancer and its symptoms within the general population identified as a key issue.

Conclusion: Even though the factors surrounding the relationship between schistosomiasis and the histopathology of bladder cancer remain unclear, there is potential for screening for schistosomiasis in endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Other key areas for future research include the dissemination of information to the general population surrounding bladder cancer and its symptoms to encourage prompt diagnosis.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere049241
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalBMJ open
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • epidemiology
  • urological tumours
  • Urological Tumours
  • Mass Screening
  • Humans
  • Africa South of the Sahara
  • Female
  • Male
  • Nigeria/epidemiology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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