Role of export diversification and renewable energy on the load capacity factor in Indonesia: a Fourier quantile causality approach

Zeeshan Fareed, Sultan Salem, Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Ugur Korkut Pata, Farrukh Shahzad

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Sustainable development and reducing environmental pressure are major issues that concern developed as well as developing countries. Although researchers widely use carbon dioxide emissions and ecological footprint within the scope of environmental degradation, a more comprehensive ecological indicator is needed to assess environmental sustainability. In this context, the load capacity factor enables a comprehensive environmental sustainability assessment through the simultaneous analysis of biocapacity and ecological footprint. However, there are few studies analyzing the determinants of load capacity factor and this study aims to fill this gap for Indonesia. Using the recently developed Fourier quantile causality test, this study investigates the impact of income, export diversification, non-renewable and renewable energy consumption on the load capacity factor for Indonesia during 1965Q1–2014Q4. The results show unidirectional causality from non-renewable energy consumption to the load capacity factor at all quantiles, while income, export diversification, and renewable energy are the causes of environmental quality at middle and higher quantiles (within 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9). Most importantly, renewable energy and export diversification increase the load capacity factor and thus support environmental quality. In contrast, an increase in income and consumption of non-renewable energy reduces the load capacity factor. These results highlight the importance of renewable energy and export diversification for the sustainable development of Indonesia.
Original languageEnglish
Article number770152
Number of pages9
JournalFrontiers in Environmental Science
Publication statusPublished - 28 Oct 2021


  • export diversification
  • renewable energy consumption
  • load capacity factor
  • Fourier approximation
  • quantile causality test


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