Risk of Adverse Health and Social Outcomes Up to 50 Years After Wilms Tumor: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

Kwok-Fai Wong, Raoul Reulen, David Winter, Joyeeta Guha, Miranda Fidler, Julie Kelly, Emma Lancashire, Helen Jenkinson, Elaine Sugden, Gill Levitt, Clare Frobisher, Michael Hawkins

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Purpose: Survivors of Wilms tumor (WT) are at risk for adverse health and social outcomes but risks beyond 30 years from diagnosis remain uncertain. We investigated the risks of adverse outcomes among 5-year survivors of WT, in particular, those between 30 and 50 years from diagnosis.

Patients and Methods: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study includes 1,441 5-year survivors of WT. We investigated cause-specific mortality, risk of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs), and, for those who completed a questionnaire, the extent of smoking and drinking, educational achievement, health status, and health service use compared with the general population.

Results: Cumulative risk of death from all causes, excluding recurrence, increased substantially from 5.4% to 22.7% at 30 years and 50 years, respectively, after WT diagnosis—75% of excess deaths beyond 30 years from diagnosis were attributable to SPNs (50%) and cardiac diseases (25%). Digestive cancer, most frequently bowel, accounted for 41% of excess cancers beyond 30 years.

Conclusion: Between 30 and 50 years from diagnosis, survivors of WT are at a substantially increased risk of premature mortality, and 75% of excess deaths were accounted for by SPNs and cardiac diseases. Radiotherapy exposure was a risk factor for both outcomes. The proportion of patients with WT who are exposed to radiotherapy has reduced substantially in recent decades because of initiatives such as the SIOP WT 2001 clinical trial, which sought to reduce late effects; however, the majority of current survivors, who are at least 30 years from diagnosis, received radiotherapy. Surveillance of this group should focus on SPNs, in particular, bowel and breast cancers, and cardiac conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1772-1779
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number15
Early online date28 Mar 2016
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2016


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