In this paper we report the successful use of a non-metallic electrode material, boron-doped diamond (BOO), for the anodic electro-oxidative modification of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). Platinum electrodes can give rise to loss of activity of HEWL in elect rosynthetic studies, whereas activity is retained on boron-doped diamond which is proposed as an effective substitute material for this purpose. We also compare literature methods of electrode pre-treatment to determine the most effective in electrosynthesis. Our findings show a decrease in total nitroprotein yield with decreasing nitrite concentration and an increase with increasing solution pH, confirming that, at a BDD electrode, the controlling factor remains the concentration of tyrosine phenolate anion. Purification of mono- and bis-nitrated HEWL and assay of enzymic activity showed better retention of activity at BOO electrode surfaces when compared to platinum. The products from electro-oxidation of HEWL at BOO were confirmed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, which revealed unique mass increases of +45 and +90 Da for the mono- and bis-nitrated lysozyme, respectively, corresponding to nitration at tyrosine residues. The nitration sites were confirmed as Tyr23 and Tyr20. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Electro-oxidative nitration
- Infrared multiphoton dissociation
- Tandem mass spectrometry