Reconsidering valuing happiness: the application of goal type theory

Murat Yıldırım, Emily Davison, Heather Flowe, John Maltby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
100 Downloads (Pure)


The current paper seeks to solve theoretical and well-being ambiguities presented by the concept of valuing happiness by proposing that extant assessment represents a two-factor model situated within goal type theory. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the valuing happiness scale among UK and US student and adult samples confirmed structural validity for valuing happiness representing valuing happiness in terms of attainment and maintenance goals. Among further UK student samples, both aspects of valuing happiness were related with lower levels of well-being, with a predicted distinction between the two factors of valuing happiness via attainment being associated with lower levels of self-acceptance and valuing happiness via maintenance being associated with lower levels of autonomy. The results suggest that the scale has a two-factor structure with sound psychometric properties that distinguish successfully between attainment valuing happiness and maintenance valuing happiness.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1757-1767
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Issue number3
Early online date4 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Authors would like to thank all participants who involved in this study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature.


  • Attainment
  • Autonomy
  • Goal theory
  • Maintenance
  • Self-acceptance
  • Valuing happiness
  • Well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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