Reciprocal relations between students' academic enjoyment, boredom, and achievement over time

David Putwain, Sandra Becker, Wendy Symes, Reinhard Pekrun

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    43 Citations (Scopus)
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    The control-value theory (CVT) proposes that achievement emotions and academic achievement show reciprocal effects over time. Previous studies have examined how achievement emotions predict subsequent achievement. However, evidence is limited for whether achievement can also predict achievement emotions. To examine these reciprocal relations, data were collected about two achievement emotions: enjoyment and boredom, and mathematics achievement over four waves in a single school year in primary school students in Years 5 and 6. Results from structural equation modeling supported reciprocal relations
    between emotions and achievement. Higher enjoyment and lower boredom predicted greater subsequent achievement and, in turn, greater academic achievement predicted subsequent greater enjoyment and lower boredom. Furthermore, the relations between emotions over time were mediated by achievement. These findings build on the evidence base for CVT and
    further understanding of relations between achievement emotions and academic achievement in younger students.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)73-81
    JournalLearning and Instruction
    Early online date1 Sept 2017
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


    • achievement emotions
    • enjoyment
    • boredom
    • academic achievement
    • control-value theory


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