γδ T cells are unconventional lymphocytes commonly described as 'innate-like' in function, which can respond in both a T cell receptor (TCR)-independent and also major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unrestricted TCR-dependent manner. While the relative importance of TCR recognition had remained unclear, recent studies revealed that human Vδ1 T cells display unexpected parallels with adaptive αβ T cells. Vδ1 T cells undergo profound and highly focussed clonal expansion from an initially diverse and private TCR repertoire, most likely in response to specific immune challenges. Concomitantly, they differentiate from a Vδ1 T cell naïve (Tnaïve) to a Vδ1 T cell effector (Teffector) phenotype, marked by the downregulation of lymphoid homing receptors and upregulation of peripheral homing receptors and effector markers. This suggests that an adaptive paradigm applies to Vδ1 T cells, likely involving TCR-dependent but MHC-unrestricted responses to microbial and non-microbial challenges.