Realistic costs of wind-hydrogen vehicle fuel production

J. Linnemann*, Robert Steinberger-Wilckens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Electricity grids with a high penetration of fluctuating energy production from wind and solar energy sources bear a risk of electricity over-production. A surplus of renewable energy can arise at times of high production when the energy volume cannot be absorbed by the electricity grid. Furthermore, the control of the stochastic power fluctuations has to be addressed since these will result in changes to grid stability. Producing hydrogen from excess electricity is one approach to solve these problems. This hydrogen can either be sold outside the electricity market, for instance as vehicle fuel, or re-converted into electricity, for instance as a means of controlling wind power output. This paper describes two different wind-hydrogen systems and analyses the ensuing costs of hydrogen per unit of energy service (i.e. kWh and Nm3). If hydrogen is to represent a practical fuel alternative, it has to compete with conventional energy carriers. If this is not possible on strictly (micro-) economic terms, at least a macro-economic calculation, in this case including all external costs of energy services, needs to show competitiveness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1492-1499
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Issue number10-11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2007


  • Electrolysis
  • Energy costs
  • External costs
  • Hydrogen
  • Hydrogen fuel costs
  • Infrastructure
  • Storage
  • System costs
  • Wind energy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrochemistry
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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