Real-time dissolution behaviour of furosemide in biorelevant media as determined by UV imaging

Sarah Gordon, Kaisa Naelapää, Jukka Rantanen, Arzu Selen, Anette Müllertz, Jesper Ostergaard*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The potential of UV imaging as a new small scale flow-through dissolution testing platform and its ability to incorporate biorelevant media was tested. Furosemide was utilized as a model poorly soluble drug, and dissolution media simulating conditions in the small intestine (5/1.25mM and 40/10mM bile salt/phospholipid, pH 6.5) together with corresponding blank buffer were employed. Dissolution rates as a function of flow rate (0.2-1.0mL/min) were determined directly from UV images, and by analysis of collected effluent using UV spectrophotometry. A good agreement in dissolution rates was observed, however repeatability of data based on measurement of collected effluent was superior to that obtained by UV imaging in the utilized prototypic flow cell. Both methods indicated that biorelevant media did not markedly increase the dissolution rate of furosemide as compared to buffer. Qualitatively, UV images indicated that uncontrolled swelling/precipitation of furosemide on the compact surface was occurring in some samples. In situ Raman spectroscopy together with X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the observations were not due to a solid form transformation of furosemide. The presented results highlight the complementary features of the utilized techniques and, in particular, the detailed information related to dissolution behavior which can be achieved by UV imaging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1407-1416
Number of pages10
JournalPharmaceutical Development and Technology
Issue number6
Early online date9 Nov 2012
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research project was in part financially supported by the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research Critical Path Funding Program. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of their companies/institutions or the official policy of the FDA. No official endorsement by the FDA is intended or should be inferred. The authors report no conflict of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of this paper.


  • Biorelevant dissolution testing
  • Flow through Raman spectroscopy
  • Simulated intestinal media
  • UV/Vis spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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