Rain attenuation at millimeter wave and low-THz frequencies

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23 Citations (Scopus)


Wave attenuation through rain with different rainfall rates at millimeter wave (f = 77 GHz) and low-terahertz (Low-THz) (f = 300 GHz) frequencies is studied in this article. Rain has pronounced impacts on electromagnetic wave propagation and one of the well-known effects is attenuation of the transmitted wave. Attenuation at both frequencies and hydrometeor properties [rainfall rate and drop size distribution (DSD)] are measured simultaneously. The measured DSD is fit with gamma and Weibull distributions and is also compared to the frequently used distribution Marshall and Palmer (MP) model; Weibull is shown to be a better fit to the measured DSDs. Theoretical prediction of attenuation as a function of rainfall rate (up to about 20 mm/h) is determined using Mie scattering theory, and the fit gamma and Weibull, and MP distribution models; as well as using the International Telecommunications Union Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) recommendation. The calculations are evaluated by comparing them to the experiment. The measured results at 77 GHz best agree with the ITU-R recommendation whereas at 300 GHz, the calculation based on Mie scattering and the Weibull distribution exhibits the best fit to the measured data. The measured data that exceed the theoretical prediction are analyzed and interpreted based on their corresponding observed drop size properties, for the first time.
Original languageEnglish
Article number8826596
Pages (from-to)421-431
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 6 Sept 2019


  • Drop size distribution (DSD)
  • Low-terahertz (Low-THz)
  • Rain attenuation
  • Wave propagation
  • rain attenuation
  • wave propagation
  • low-terahertz (Low-THz)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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