Punctate inner choroidopathy: A review

Dana Ahnood, Savitha Madhusudhan, Marie D. Tsaloumas, Nadia K. Waheed, Pearse A. Keane, Alastair K. Denniston

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25 Citations (Scopus)
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Punctate inner choroidopathy (PIC), an idiopathic inflammatory multifocal chorioretinopathy that predominantly affects young myopic women, appears to be relatively rare, but there are limited data to support accurate estimates of prevalence, and it is likely that the condition is underdiagnosed. The etiological relationship between PIC and other conditions within the “white dot syndromes” group remains uncertain. We, like others, would suggest that PIC and multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis represent a single disease process that is modified by host factors (including host immunoregulation) to cause the range of clinical phenotypes seen. The impact of PIC on the patient is highly variable, with outcome ranging from complete spontaneous recovery to bilateral severe sight loss. Detection and monitoring have been greatly facilitated by modern scanning techniques, especially optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence imaging and may be enhanced by coregistration of sequential images to detect change over time. Depending on the course of disease and nature of complications, appropriate treatment may range from observation to systemic immunosuppression and antiangiogenic therapies. PIC is a challenging condition where treatment has to be tailored to the patient's individual circumstances, the extent of disease, and the risk of progression.
Original languageEnglish
JournalSurvey Ophthalmol
Early online date15 Oct 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Oct 2016


  • punctate inner choroidopathy
  • choroidal neovascularization
  • posterior uveitis
  • white dot syndromes


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