The present study describes an association between adverse outcome in the twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) and pulmonary stenosis or reactive right ventricular hypertrophy. Six discordant monozygotic twin pregnancies with TTTS are described. Ventricular hypertrophy and atrioventricular valvular regurgitation occurred in all the recipient twins with pulmonary valvular stenosis in three cases and infundibular stenosis in one case. The recipient twin in one pair and both twins in another pregnancy died as a consequence of immaturity but the remaining twins all survived. Surgical intervention was required in one baby for valvular pulmonary stenosis. Our observations suggest that elevated blood pressure in the transfusion recipient may play an important role in pathogenesis. We hypothesise that both pulmonary stenosis and right chamber hypertrophy are secondary to hemodynamic changes. Although we have found valvular pulmonary stenosis in three recipients and infundibular stenosis in only one, this (obstruction to outflow) could be due to right chamber hypertrophy.