Prospects for immunotherapy of malignant disease

E C Morris, G M Bendle, H J Stauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


The majority of T cell-recognized tumour antigens in humans are encoded by genes that are also present in normal tissues. Low levels of gene expression in normal cells can lead to the inactivation of high-avidity T cells by immunological tolerance mechanisms. As a consequence, low-avidity T cell responses in patients are often inadequate in providing tumour protection. Recently, several technologies have been developed to overcome tolerance, allowing the isolation of high-affinity, HLA-restricted receptors specific for tumour-associated peptide epitopes. Furthermore, transfer of HLA-restricted antigen receptors provides an opportunity to empower patient T cells with new tumour-reactive specificities that cannot be retrieved from the autologous T cell repertoire.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalClinical & Experimental Immunology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2003


  • Animals
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Forecasting
  • Genetic Therapy
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy, Adoptive
  • Mice
  • Models, Animal
  • Neoplasms
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic
  • Transduction, Genetic
  • Tumor Escape
  • Vaccination


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