Properties of non-coding mutation hotspots as urinary biomarkers for bladder cancer detection

The BladderPath trial management group

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Mutations at specific hotspots in non-coding regions of ADGRG6, PLEKHS1, WDR74, TBC1D12 and LEPROTL1 frequently occur in bladder cancer (BC). These mutations could function as biomarkers for the non-invasive detection of BC but this remains largely unexplored. Massively-parallel sequencing of non-coding hotspots was applied to 884 urine cell pellet DNAs: 591 from haematuria clinic patients (165 BCs, 426 non-BCs) and 293 from non-muscle invasive BC surveillance patients (29 with recurrence). Urine samples from 142 non-BC haematuria clinic patients were used to optimise variant calling. Non-coding mutations are readily detectable in the urine of BC patients and undetectable, or present at much lower frequencies, in the absence of BC. The mutations can be used to detect incident BC with 66% sensitivity (95% CI 58–75) at 92% specificity (95% CI 88–95) and recurrent disease with 55% sensitivity (95% CI 36–74) at 85% specificity (95% CI 80–89%) using a 2% variant allele frequency threshold. In the NMIBC surveillance setting, the detection of non-coding mutations in urine in the absence of clinically detectable disease was associated with an increased relative risk of future recurrence (RR = 4.62 (95% CI 3.75–5.48)). As urinary biomarkers, non-coding hotspot mutations behave similarly to driver mutations in BC-associated genes and could be included in biomarker panels for BC detection.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1060
Number of pages7
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jan 2023


  • Article
  • /692/53/2421
  • /692/4028/67
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