Probabilistic model checking and autonomy

Marta Kwiatkowska, Gethin Norman, David Parker

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Abstract

The design and control of autonomous systems that operate in uncertain or adversarial environments can be facilitated by formal modeling and analysis. Probabilistic model checking is a technique to automatically verify, for a given temporal logic specification, that a system model satisfies the specification, as well as to synthesize an optimal strategy for its control. This method has recently been extended to multiagent systems that exhibit competitive or cooperative behavior modeled via stochastic games and synthesis of equilibria strategies. In this article, we provide an overview of probabilistic model checking, focusing on models supported by the PRISM and PRISM-games model checkers. This overview includes fully observable and partially observable Markov decision processes, as well as turn-based and concurrent stochastic games, together with associated probabilistic temporal logics. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework through illustrative examples from autonomous systems. Finally, we highlight research challenges and suggest directions for future work in this area.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems
Early online date6 Dec 2021
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 6 Dec 2021

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