Proactive modulation of long-interval intracortical inhibition during response inhibition

Hayley MacDonald, Matthew J. Cowie, John Cirillo, Winston D. Byblow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)
171 Downloads (Pure)


Daily activities often require sudden cancellation of preplanned movement, termed response inhibition. When only a subcomponent of a whole response must be suppressed (required here on Partial trials), the ensuing component is markedly delayed. The neural mechanisms underlying partial response inhibition remain unclear. We hypothesized that Partial trials would be associated with nonselective corticomotor suppression and that GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition within primary motor cortex might be responsible for the nonselective corticomotor suppression contributing to Partial trial response delays. Sixteen right-handed participants performed a bimanual anticipatory response inhibition task while single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to elicit motor evoked potentials in the left first dorsal interosseous muscle. Lift times, amplitude of motor evoked potentials, and long-interval intracortical inhibition were examined across the different trial types (Go, Stop-Left, Stop-Right, Stop-Both). Go trials produced a tight distribution of lift times around the target, whereas those during Partial trials (Stop-Left and Stop-Right) were substantially delayed. The modulation of motor evoked potential amplitude during Stop-Right trials reflected anticipation, suppression, and subsequent reinitiation of movement. Importantly, suppression was present across all Stop trial types, indicative of a "default" nonselective inhibitory process. Compared with blocks containing only Go trials, inhibition increased when Stop trials were introduced but did not differ between trial types. The amount of inhibition was positively correlated with lift times during Stop-Right trials. Tonic levels of inhibition appear to be proactively modulated by task context and influence the speed at which unimanual responses occur after a nonselective "brake" is applied.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)859-867
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neurophysiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cerebral Cortex/physiology
  • Electromyography
  • Evoked Potentials, Motor/physiology
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality
  • Hand/physiology
  • Humans
  • Inhibition (Psychology)
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neural Inhibition/physiology
  • Psychomotor Performance/physiology
  • Reaction Time/physiology
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Young Adult


Dive into the research topics of 'Proactive modulation of long-interval intracortical inhibition during response inhibition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this