Everyone knows that peacocks are proud. Medieval authors did too, and hence often associated the bird with superbia. To assume that the medieval peacock was always interpreted in a negative light is, however, deeply misguided. This article demonstrates the wide range of peacock meanings, and explores in detail little-known late-medieval associations of the bird with bishops and Popes, and with a specific set of chivalric values. As such it contributes to our understanding both of the cultural history of the peacock, and of medieval animal symbolism more generally.