Heart failure (HF) is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, particularly if this condition is accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF). Many HF patients have background coronary artery disease (CAD) making them prone to coronary thrombosis resulting in myocardial infarction or sudden death. Oral anticoagulation is essential in the vast majority of HF patients with AF with non-vitamin K based anticoagulants being a suitable alternative to warfarin. In contrast, aspirin alone does not provide adequate stroke prevention in such patients. In HF without AF, oral anticoagulation should not be routinely used, and antiplatelet agents should be prescribed in patients with background CAD. This review provides an overview of prothrombotic factors and antithrombotic management of patients with HF.